HISTORY - TIMELINE
1142- Earliest date that scholars place of the formation
of the Haudenosaunee. The Haudenosaunee believe that our League was
formed much earlier than that.
1613- Two Row Wampum - a treaty between the Haudenosaunee
and the Dutch establishing relations.
1677: April-May: The Silver Covenant Chain: the first known written (non-native) record of the Silver Covenant Chain is noted during the negotiations by the Haudenosaunee in Albany with New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut.
1696- The French attack the Onondaga. The French find
abandoned villages, decide to burn the crops of the Onondagas.
1701: Haudenosaunee made peace with both the English and the French, declaring neutrality.
1713: Treaty of Utrecht ends a war between England and France. In this treaty, England and France recognize the Haudenosaunee right to travel and trade on both sides of the English-Canada border and throughout the territories claimed by both England and France. The right of the Haudenosaunee to travel and trade is an “aboriginal right” – that is, a right that existed before contact with the Europeans. In fact, archaeological evidence proves the Haudenosaunee right to travel and trade had been asserted for at least three thousand years prior to white contact.
1744: during treaty negotiations in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Canasatego, an Onondaga chief, urges the English colonists to unite by following the example of the Haudenosaunee.
1751: Benjamin Franklin writes to James Parker on March 20, l750/5l, referring to the confederacy formed by the Haudenosaunee and noting that the colonists should form a similar union.
1754: The Albany Plan of Union, drafted primarily by Benjamin Franklin, was based on the Haudenosaunee example and is proposed at an Albany meeting of colonists. Although the plan fails, it sets the precedent for the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 at which the united colonists protested Great Britain’s tax
1768: The Treaty of Fort Stanwix between the Haudenosaunee and Great Britain’s representative Sir William Johnson establishes the western boundary of the New York colony: from Fort Stanwix (now Rome, New York) southeasterly and then south to the Pennsylvania border and then southwesterly to Pittsburgh and the Ohio River. The territory to the west of the line all the way to what is now eastern Ohio was intended to be clearly the lands of the Haudenosaunee.
1775- At Ft. Pitt, commissioners from the Continental Congress, asks the Haudenosaunee
and its allies to remain neutral in the upcoming revolution. The Haudenosaunee
and its 1500 delegates agrees.
1778– Haudenosaunee leaders state that the United
States does not have the authority to draft our men into war.
1779- General George Washington orders the total destruction of the Haudenosaunee. In April of 1779, General Goose Van Schaick attacks men, women, and children and burns more than 8 miles of Onondaga villages and crops beginning at Onondaga Lake. Generals Sullivan and Clinton coninue the campaign in September focusing on the Cayuga and Seneca nations.
1784: The Second Treaty of Fort Stanwix is convened by the commissioners from Continental Congress, asks
for Peace between the USA and the Haudenosaunee to end fighting and re-establish
government to government relations.
1789- Onondagas complain to Governor Clinton that pioneer
Asa Danforth is building a house along Onondaga Lake.
1790- Federal Trade and Intercourse Act- at the request
of the Haudenosaunee, President Washington makes a law stating no land
can be aquired or purched unless it has the approval of the United States
1794- Treaty of Canandaigua - George Washington asks
for Peace between the USA and the Haudenosaunee to end fighting and reestablish
government to government relations. Under article 7, it establishes a
method for the 2 governments to manage individuals who breaks the laws
inside the Haudenosaunee and United States territories.
1794- Jay Treaty- States that the Haudenosaunee has
free passage between the United States and Canada and does not have to
pay a duty or toll to do so.
1790-1822- New York State continues to purchase land
from the Onondaga without following the rules and regulations set forth
by President Washington and the Federal government.
1815- Seneca chief Handsome Lake, bringing his "Good Message" to the people, passes away at Onondaga.
1815: The Treaty of Ghent between Great Britain and the United States restores to all Indian people all the rights and treaties they had prior to 1811
1850- The first school is built on the border of the
Onondaga Nation. It is burned down.
1861- The Hough Report. New York State sets up a commission
to "Extinguish Title" of natives to their land in New York
1889: Whipple Report issued by the New York State legislature details conditions at Onondaga and all Haudenosaunee reservations, extensively quoting Haudenosaunee leaders.
1890- A second school house is built on the Nation.
Students are taught in English only classes. The Onondaga language is
prohibited. Young men and women are sent to Boarding Schools in western
New York State and Pennsylvania.
1892: Extra Census Bulletin The Six Nations declares the imposition of allotment and citizenship would violate treaties with the Haudenosaunee. One of the authors of this report, Thomas Donaldson, noted: “If the Iroquois … want to become citizens of the United States they must renounce allegiance to their own people. . . . neither the state of New York nor the United States can break them [the reservations] up without the Indians' consent, or through conditions analogous to those of war. They have always been recognized as nations….
1913: Income Tax approved by the l6th Amendment: proposed in l909, ratified l9l3. This is a unilateral action by the United States that violates the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua. The Haudenosaunee had no say in this amendment.
1924- The United States enacts the 1924 Citizen Act
act making all Natives American citizens. The Haudenosaunee refuse the
act, referring to the Two Row Wampum as a binding agreement, as one government
cannot impose laws on the other government and its people.
1934: The Indian Reorganization Act is passed stating that Native Americans can have freedom of religion if they dissolve traditional government and create a government modeled on the United States Constitution.
1935: the Haudenosaunee reject the Indian Reorganization Act.
1946: Congress establishes the Indian Claims Commission to hear claims by Indian nations against the United States.
1948- The New Deal is brought to the Onondaga Nation
when a brick school is built and a dam. Why we need a dam, know one knows.
1955- Onondaga raises money to open our own volunteer
1965- Tadadaho George Thomas passes.
1968- Tadadaho Leon Shenandoah Sr. condoled by the
1971- New York State tries to purchase more land to
expand interstate 81 through the Onondaga Nation. Onondaga wins! NYS
expands interstate 81 in neighboring LaFayette, New York.
1972- The Onondaga Indian School begins language and
culture classes to teach students the Onondaga Language after the community
boycotts school system.
1977- The first Haudenosaunee Passports are issued
and an Onondaga delegation travels to Switzerland using the passports.
1980- At Onondaga, The Grand Council approves the initiation
of the Iroquois Nationals. A field lacrosse team that competes with the
other lacrosse Nations of the world; USA, Canada, United Kingdom, and
1983- Onondaga Council permits individual owners to
open tax free "Smoke Shops" on the Nation.
1983- American Indian Movement leader Dennis Banks
seeks amnesty from the United States for his involvement in the Wounded
Knee standoff in South Dakota. Dennis Banks stayed under the protection
of the Onondaga Nation until an equitable agreement was drawn between
the Haudenosaunee and the United States.
1987- The US Senate and House of Representatives pass
a Bill stating the role the Haudenosaunee had on the founding fathers
of the United States government.
1989- New York museums return many of our wampum to
the Onondaga Nation. Wampum belts such as the Hiawatha, Tadadaho, and
Dust Fan belt are back in our possession after being sold 92 years earlier.
1995- The Rochester Democrat and Chronicle reports
that Gov. Pataki has called off Gallant Piper. Gallant Piper was a military
solution involving 10,000 infantry troops to "settle" the taxation
issue with the Haudenosaunee.
1992- Onondaga delegation including Leon Shenandoah,
Oren Lyons and Audrey Shenandoah addresses the United Nations general
1995- The Onondaga Nation School receives major renovations
and additional classrooms. Architects uses symbolism of the Haudenosaunee
in its design.
1996- Tadadaho Leon Shenandoah Sr. passes.
1998- The New York State museum returns over 200 ceremonial
masks to the Onondaga Nation.
1998- The first Nation owned and operated Smoke Shop
2000- Onondaga opens its own lacrosse/ice arena called
2001- Tadadaho Sid Hill is condoled by the Haudenosaunee.
2002- Onondaga Nation completed Phase 1 of the Water
Work project to bring fresh clean water to the people on the Onondaga
2003- Onondaga works with the LaFayette School District
to fly the Haudenosaunee flag at the High School in LaFayette, NY.
2005- The Onondaga Nation submits a land claim
on their territories in central New York.
2006- Jane Goodall joins the Onondaga Nation to commiserate the destruction of their sacred Onondaga Lake and encourage hope for its salvation with an alternative clean up plan then the one proposed by Honeywell.
2007- The Onondaga Nation defends their case In Federal Courrt in Albany. New York State wants the case dismissed as it would be too disruptive to the citizens of New York. The Onondaga Nation states that it is not seeking removal of landowners but declaritory judgement that New York State violated federal laws.
2009- Onondaga Nation and the Haudenosaunee Task Force issue a statement against Hydro-fracking and the dangers it presents to the environment.