Chief Irving Powless Jr and Dr. Robert Venables (retired professor of Native American Studies at Cornell) have formed a relationship over the past 30+ years. Here are some of the issues that they discuss.
Yale Law Journal VOLUME 124, 2014-2015 NUMBER 4 January-February 2015 Pages 882-1345 Beyond the Indian Commerce Clause Gregory Ablavsky with additions by Robert Venables Abstract. The Supreme Court has described the Indian Commerce Clause as the primary constitutional basis for federal exclusive and plenary power over Indian affairs. Recently, Justice Clarence Thomas, citing current scholarship, […]
Dr. Robert Venables There have been many treaties and agreements between the Haudenosaunee and the European nations. Guswenta (Two Row Wampum) and the Covenant Chain of Peace were the first of these agreements. The Guswenta or Two Row Wampum is a metaphor for how the European newcomers and the Haudenosaunee mutually agreed to live in […]
1763: Treaty of Paris, February 10, ends the French and Indian War. France transfers rights to Canada to Great Britain.1763: Proclamation Line, October 7. Despite this Royal decree from the government of King George III, white British subjects continually violate this international border by settling on lands west of the line along the Ohio River frontier.1768: Treaty of Fort Stanwix, October 24
Dr. Robert Venables In my opinion as a historian, New York State, as a subordinate government to the federal government of the United States, has three basic obligations under United States law: to implement the intent of federal United States treaties with the Haudenosaunee to implement the intent of two federal United States treaties with […]
Over the years, I have discussed the treaty and the oral tradition of the Two Row Wampum (Guswenta) with many Onondagas including Chief Powless, Faithkeeper Oren Lyons, and the late Alice Papineau, an Onondaga Clan Mother. I have also discussed the treaty and the Two Row Wampum with many other Haudenosaunee, including the late Jake Swamp (Mohawk).
Dr. Robert Venables The negotiator Timothy Pickering of the Canandaigua Treaty wrote a letter to President Washington regarding an upcoming meeting that Pickering and Washington were to hold in Philadelphia with Haudenosaunee diplomats. Pickering wrote bluntly that: “Indians have been so often deceived by White people, that White Man is, among many of them, but […]
Dr. Robert Venables While William Johnson did have a claim to the lands around Onondaga Lake, this claim was nullified by the Patriots during the American Revolution. 1750: The French proposed a fort at Onondaga. On August 18, 1750, William Johnson wrote to Governor George Clinton: “I yesterday received a piece of News from Lieutenant […]
Dr. Robert Venables On the afternoon of October 28, 1794, the United States commissioner, Colonel Timothy Pickering, made a speech carefully detailing the terms of the Treaty of Canandaigua to the Haudenosaunee gathered in council at Canandaigua. The Quaker William Savery was present at this meeting. Savery recorded in his journal what Colonel Pickering told […]
Dr. Robert Venables The William Claus Wampum Belt was originally longer than the belt returned to Onondaga in June 12, 2012. Originally, the belt also had the date “1800” woven into one end of its beaded design. The belt was described in 1901 by William M. Beauchamp in his classic study, Wampum and Shell Articles […]
by Dr. Robert Venables The Treaty of 1788 and the Era Before the American Revolution (1760 to 1775) The negotiations that led to the 1788 treaty between the Onondagas and New York State were carried out within the context of re-establishing the pre-Revolutionary era. Thus Governor Clinton told the Onondagas: “The [Revolutionary] War for a […]
This report is based on the American State Papers published in 1832 “under the authority of Congress.” The American State Papers are an official record of the United States government in the early years of the United States from 1789 to 1815. Volume IV of these American State Papers is entitled Indian Affairs. Thus the […]
The first surviving record of the Silver Covenant Chain occurs in 1677. Interestingly, the imagery associated with the iron chain survived in describing efforts to keep the chain viable: not only was the Covenant Chain frequently “polished,” a reference to improving the links of the silver chain, the chain could also be described as rusted – not tarnished as silver would be. Polishing the chain and removing its rust were interchangeable images until the 1820s.